Ramanbhai Nilkanth was born on 13 March 1868 in Ahmedabad to Mahipatram Rupram Nilkanth and Rupkunwarba who were social reformers. He completed primary and secondary education in Ahmedabad. He matriculated at the age of 15. He further studied at Gujarat College, Ahmedabad and Elphinstone College, Bombay. He completed B.A. in 1887 and later obtained LL.B. His first wife Hansvadan died at young age and he married again to Vidyagauri Nilkanth, one of the first female graduates from state, in 1887.